Solar, Wind and Nuclear EnergyPrices
The US Nuclear industry reportsgenerating costs without capital of 2.5cents per kwhfor dual plants or 3.4 cents perkwh for single unit plants.Vogtle and others are dual plants. 4.3cents per kwhlooks like it includes capital costs for singleplants.
June 15, 2019
Nuclear Costs in the USAThe US nuclear industry hasreduced shutdowns for refueling to25 days onaverage. The US Nuclear capacityfactor has been over 91% for 5 years running.
Capacity Factors: The cumulative net ACcapacity factors of individual projects in a sample of 392 PVprojects totaling 16,052 MWAC range widely, from 14.3% to 35.2%,with a sample median of 26.3% and a capacity-weighted average of27.6%. This project-level variation is based on a number offactors, including the strength of the solar resource at theproject site, whether the array is mounted at a fixed tilt or on atracking mechanism, the inverter loading ratio, degradation, andcurtailment.
Operation and Maintenance (样样“O&M”)Costs: What limited empirical O&M cost data are publiclyavailable suggest that PV O&M costs were in the neighborhood of$16/kWAC-year, or $8/MWh, in 2017. These numbers您看华润电力华北年夜区—from a limitedsample of 39 projects totaling 806 MWAC—include only those costsincurred to directly operate a8091风电行业开展远况nd maintain the generating plant, andshould not be confused with total operating ex风电投标penses, which wouldalso include property taxes, insurance, land royalties, performancebonds, various administrative and other fees, andoverhead.
看看开展 The lowest 20th percentile of projectswithin our 2017 sample (of 76 PV projects totaling 2,303 MWAC) werepriced at or below$1.8/WAC, with thelowest-priced proje8091风电行业开展远况cts around$0.9/WAC.
The median price is 风力收电装备开展趋向$2000 per KW (AC)install/. $1600/KW (DC).
Installed Prices: Median installed PVproject prices in 2017 were $2.0/WAC (or $1.6/WDC) for projectscompleted in 2017.
For a typical solar风力收电装备开展趋向 installation, thegeneral rule of thumb is that for every 1kW of solar panels needed,the area required is app我国风力收电远况roximately 100 square feet. A 1mW solar PVpower plant, theThisamount of land is just for the panels themselves and more space isneeded for other solar equipment, which can bring the total closerto about 4 acres for a 1mW farm. Land for solar is leasing out atabout $4000 per acre per year. Each Megawatt needs $ per yearin land. This is$16 million peryear for land leasing on a gigawatt. A gigawatt of solar generates about 1 TWh. Thiswould be 1.6 cents per KWh for land charges.
The most recent comprehensive US solarcosts I can find is a 2018 Berkeley Lab report of 2017 prices andprojects.
Xcel Energy received a median bid priceof$21/MWh forwind-plus-storage projectsand$36/MWh forsolar-plus-storage projects.
U.S. Solar Market added 10.6 GW of PV in2018.
How low can solar prices go? GTMpredicts under$15/MWhin 2022 (1.5 cents perKWh).
Panels are less than half the price ofthe installation.
The O&M costs of solar have beenflat for four years at 0.8 cents per kwh. The land for solar isabout 1.6 cents per kwh. Solar projects get a 30% tax write-off andhas other subsidies.
NV Energy您晓得风力’s hadsolar powerpricingof$24.99/MWhin Arizona. This was2.5 cents per kwh. A dualnuclearpower plantinthe US has2.4 cents per kwh inpricing. The average pricing fornew solar in the US is about 3.6 cents per kwh.